Check out this article for more information. The below no longer applies to Android 14, but may be instead re-appear for Android 15 (or sooner in a QPR - quarterly patch release - if it's ready).
This'll be updated at a later date.
From Android 14, the behaviour when pausing a work profile is changing.
In Android 14, turning the work profile off no longer fully disables the profile. Instead, it is now "paused". Applications and notifications continue to be disabled and hidden respectfully, however the underlying profile user now relies on a solution that aligns with Focus Mode in Digital Wellbeing, suspending applications and notifications themselves, while permitting the work profile user to remain active and available in the background for what Google considers to be a better user experience.
What does it mean when apps are suspended?
While in this state, the application's notifications will be hidden, any of its started activities will be stopped and it will not be able to show toasts or dialogs or play audio. When the user tries to launch a suspended app, the system will, instead, show a dialog to the user informing them that they cannot use this app while it is suspended.
With the work profile user still running in the background when the work profile is "paused" it allows for a few new features:
It hasn't, but Google has predominantly referred to turning off the work profile in both documentation and areas of the Android OS as pausing it.
What needs to be understood now is:
Expect increased battery and data usage on work profile devices during periods where the profile is paused; the exact amount is likely OEM-dependent. The amount of data and battery the work profile uses overall isn't changing vs 13, rather only when usage is now permitted to be used.
In testing Wi-Fi data usage on a Pixel 7a running 14 beta 4 over the span of a few days I found usage fluctuated considerably while the work profile was paused; some days up to 10mb of background data usage was recorded over a 12-hour period, which can be attributed to typical background application and policy sync, while one particular 12-hour period saw 200mb of background data consumed, attributable to application updates in addition to typical sync. Figures are to be considered a guide only and were taken during the Android 14 beta. Organisation-based testing should be carried out.
This data use may be of concern for employees with data-limited internet plans at home who would normally turn off the work profile when leaving the office, as they may see work-based internet use increase. While this is somewhat less of a common concern in Western Europe, I can't speak for ISPs and data plans across the world, so feel it pertinent that it's highlighted.
In conversation with Google, they stated:
Most users are unlikely to see a difference in data usage because it is only the timing of data use that is changing, rather than in bulk at the time of unpausing the apps. Some syncing and updates will happen periodically subject to the user's existing data settings.
It is, however, the timing that will impact EMM-deployed devices, and not an overall change in data usage, as work profile users can no longer block background usage in scenarios they do not want usage to occur.
Additionally, because apps are suspended, there are no privacy concerns to consider; for example Google have also confirmed location will not be polled by work profile applications while the profile is paused, although OS messaging in 14 (or lack thereof in the beta) may suggest otherwise. This may be beneficial to reiterate to users who notice background usage of paused work profiles.
Yes, on an Android 14 device you may test the new behaviour directly. This has been available in several betas.
View What's new in Android 14 for enterprise for details of this and other changes in Android 14.